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Censorship of the Press
: Protokolle der Metternich-Agenten, Cologne 19771981, vol. When the state councillor Günther Heinrich von Berg (17651843) presented his report in October 1818, it disclosed that the principle of retrospective responsibility before the courts (justice system) was already being applied in about one-third of the states, while the principle of preventative censorship (police. Dumont, Franz: Die Mainzer Republik von 1792/93: Studien zur Revolutionierung in Rheinhessen und der Pfalz, Alzey 1982. Nevertheless, he was careful to point out that free speak was a choice. Article 118 guaranteed freedom of opinion "innerhalb der Schranken der allgemeinen Gesetze". As activists were arrested or fled the country, new volunteers took on the illegal work, keeping the chain of communication unbroken until the end of the war. The new order of the ussr meant drastic political and economic changes, but also culture, education and religion were subject to revision, all with the idealistic intentions of relieving the new Soviet citizen of the suppressive yokes of feudalism. However, the expression Freiheit der Presse is somewhat older. 62 Censorship and Freedom of the Press in the 20th Century At the end of the 19th century, the centuries-long struggle against censorship and for freedom of the press seemed to have been won in large parts of Europe, at least in terms of the. Birn, Raymond: Royal Censorship of Books in Eighteenth Century France, Stanford 2012. In 1785, Charles III (17161788) transferred responsibility for the censorship to the periodical press itself and granted greater publishing freedom in the process.
Censorship of the Press
In 1851, Louis Napolon, who had been elected president, grabbed power by means of a coup d'tat, and taking the title of Napoleon III (18561879), he became the head of the Second Empire. In Germany, the press was effectively inhibited during the Thirty Years' War (1618-48 through censorship, trade restrictions and lack of paper for printing. For instance, from 1530 onward printed works were obliged to carry the name of the publisher and the place of publication ( Impressumspflicht ). The only government around, their own, might want them dead. This supervision was subsequently increasingly adopted by secular institutions also. These circumstances suggest that censorship was not implemented in the Holy Roman Empire in as uniform a manner as the imperial laws the metaphors in Kings speeach provided for. In March 1812, the Cdiz Cortes (assembly of the estates which sat in the part of Spain which was not occupied by the French, proclaimed the first modern constitution for Spain which had been drafted by the Spaniards themselves. "Where books are burned, in the end people will burn." Heinrich Heine Even in the 20th century, rulers have used the burning and destruction of libraries extensively as warnings to subversives and as a method of ethnic language purging, as was the case in Sarajevo.