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Civilisation and its Discontents
culture. As a result, civilization creates laws that prohibit killing, rape, and adultery, and it implements severe punishments if such rules are broken. He asks what society is for if not to satisfy the pleasure principle, but concedes that civilization has to make compromises of happiness in order to fulfill its primary goal of bringing people into peaceful relationship with each other, which it does by making them. (2001) The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXI (1927-1931), London, Vintage. Retrieved August 2, 2018.
Freud concludes this book by expanding on his distinction between eros and thanatos: When an instinctual trend undergoes repression, its libidinal elements are turned into symptoms, and its aggressive components into a sense of guilt 8, and he ponders on how the eternal battle between. Freud himself cannot experience this feeling of dissolution, but notes that there do indeed exist different pathological and healthy states (e.g. Freud regards this last source as perhaps more painful to us change managment than any other, 5 and the remainder of this book will extrapolate on the conflict between individual instinctual gratification-seeking and the reality of societal life. Synopsis Edit Freud begins this work by taking up a possible source of religious feeling that his previous book, The Future of an Illusion, overlooked: the oceanic feeling of wholeness, limitlessness, and eternity. Yet at the same time organized religion also exacts an enormous psychological cost to the individual by making him perpetually subordinate to the primal father figure embodied by God. Freud points out three main sources of displeasure we attempt to master: our own painful and mortal existence, the cruel and destructive aspects of the natural world, and the suffering endemic to the reality that we must live with other human beings in a society.
Freud points out that the contemporary technological advances of science have been, at best, a mixed blessing for human happiness. Freud draws a key analogy between the development of civilization and the libidinal development of the individual, which allows Freud to speak of civilization in his own terms: there is anal eroticism that develops into a need for order and cleanliness, a sublimation of instincts. Men have gained control over the forces of nature to such an extent that with their help they would no difficulty in exterminating one another to the last man. 139 Freud, Sigmund, Civilization and Its Discontents,.