City dwellers also have a higher risk for anxiety, depression and other mental illnesses than people living outside urban centers, studies show. So for the new studyRead more
You may also experience problems such as insomnia, heartburn, stomachache, diarrhea, or frequent urination. In virtually all of the studies, the volunteers reported enjoying the outside activityRead more
The role of leaders
how your work contributes to the wholethe cathedral you are building. Copyright 2011, John Baldoni. Why did Libya's leader, the mercurial Muammar Qaddafi, repeatedly challenge the United States, almost goading President Ronald Reagan into a military strike in 1986? Research has found that about 52 percent of employee absences are discretionary. They demonstrate that rationality does not "connote superhuman calculating ability, omniscience, or an Olympian view of the world as is often assumed when the rational-actor model we have described is applied to real-world situations. Next, you need to figure out if they have the resources at hand to do the job in the given time frame. But all too often, especially in times of scarcity, most of us are working over capacity. They also suggest that an individual's actions may be rational even though the process of decision making and its product may appear decidedly irrational.
Leaders use of motivating language had no direct impact on subordinates absenteeism, but instead, reduced absenteeism by altering subordinates attendance attitudes. We can explain this divergence in part by distinguishing between procedural rationality and instrumental rationality. The man replies that he is cutting stone. Because, we can postulate, Qaddafi's actions were consistent with his preferences, regardless of how "irrational" it was for a fourth-rate military power to take on the world's preeminent superpower. Foreign policy with the Nixon Doctrine in the 1970s, the Reagan Doctrine in the 1980s, and the Clinton Doctrine in the 1990s, are recent examples. When speaking of purpose, Guest likes to relate the story that Peter Drucker told about the stonemason. Leaders and the kind of leadership they exert shape the way in which foreign policies are made and the consequent behavior of states in world politics. The first time that Consumers Union (under the tenure of CEO Jim Guest) rolled out a strategic plan, employees did not understand how their work fit into the plan. How does the work get done? Now, as Guest reports, when people debate ideas, they ask: "How does this fit with the five goals of our strategic plan?" Such clarity may seem simple, but it does link purpose to results and, more important, connects people's jobs to the plan. To my way of thinking, managers have two prime responsibilities: Provide resources and remove obstacles.